• Is a pathologic process which is characterized by increase of temperature regardless to environmental temperature change, caused by an action of pyogenic substances.
  • There is no disturbance in temperature regulation


Pyogenic Substance

  • Exogenous
    • Lipopolysaccharides & Gram Negative Bacteria
  • Endogenous
    • IL-1, IL-G, IL-8, IL-11
    • IFN-a, IFN-g
    • TNF
    • Morfological Inflammatory Protein (MIP)




  • According to temperature elevation
    • Sub febrile (~38 degrees Celsius)
    • Febrile / moderate ( >39 degrees Celsius)
    • Pyretic (39-41 degrees Celsius)
    • Excessively high / hyper pyretic (>41 degrees Celsius)


  • According to characteristic of time fever
    • Continuous fever
    • Remittent fever
    • Intermittent fever
    • Recurrent fever


Pathophysiology of Fever


  1. Infectious agents / toxins / mediators of inflammation (pyrogens)
  2. Stimulate the monocytes/macrophages/endothelial cells
  3. Releasing pyrogenic cytokines – IL-1, TNF, IL-6, IFNS
  4. Stimulate the anterior hypothalamus
  5. Resulting in elevated thermoregulatory set point
  6. Leads to
    1. Increase heat conservation (vasoconstriction)
    2. Increase heat production (involuntary muscle contraction)
  7. Ending in – FEVER

16 Responses to “Fever”

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  15. Heya! I just wanted to ask if you ever have any trouble with
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