Anatomy – Cardiovascular


The Control Test for topic Cardiovascular


Test 5

1. Right Atrium of the heart

a. Shaped like a cube, thin walled

b. Receive venous blood from systemic circulation via superior and inferior vena cava

c. When opened – 2 areas: smooth n thick – m.pectinati.

d. Junction between 2 areas: crista terminalis – outer surface of the right border:sulcus terminalis

e. Septum interatrial – separate from the left atrium, shows an oval depression: fossa ovalis

f. Below fossa ovalis: opening of coronary sinus – valvula sinus coronarii

g. Vena cordis minimae – open directly to the atrium

h. Blood passes through tricuspid valve into right ventricle


2. Layers of the heart walls

a. Cardiac muscle fiber – myocardium

i. Atria

1. Superficial layer: circular @ transverse fibres

2. Deep layer: longitudinal fibres arising from fibrous ring

ii. Ventricles

1. Superficial layer: longitudinal fiber arise from right fibros ring, towards left ventricle

2. Middle layer: more or less circular, independently

3. Inner layer: conducting fibres

b. External: visceral layer of serous pericardium, thin subserous layer of connective tissue – epicardium

c. Chamber of the heart : endocardium – covers valves, continue with connective tissue of vessels entering n leaving chambers


3. Branches which form vena azygos and hemiazygos

a. Azygos v: continuation of right ascending lumbar vein on level of right crus of diaphragm

b. Hemiazygos v: continuation of the left ascending lumbar vein on level of left crus of diaphragm


4. Veins of the heart

a. Majority of veins join together into common vein vessel – located in the sinus coronarius

b. V.cardiaca magna – from apex of heart – via anterior interventricular sulcus – sinus coronarius

c. V.cardiaca media – from posterior area of apex – via posterior interventricular sulcus – sinus coronarius

d. V.cardiaca parva – from right heart surface – via sulcus coronarius – sinus coronarius

e. V.ventriculi sinistri posterior – from left ventricle near apex – sinus coronarius or pars terminalis v.cardiaca magna

f. V.obliqua atrii sinistri – from upper part of the posterior surface of atrium – sinus coronarius

g. Veins which passes directly into right atrium:

i. Vv.cordis anteriores

ii. Vv.cardiacae minimae


5. Branches of arteria mesenterica inferior

a. Left colic artery

b. Sigmoid branches (superior sigmoid artery)

c. Superior rectal artery

Test 4

1. Right ventricle of the heart

a. Thicker muscular wall than right atrium

b. Internal surface – irregular projection of muscle: trabeculae carneae

c. Close of tricuspid valce – contraction of ventricle musle – blood moves through conus arteriosum into pulmonary trunk


2. Valves of the heart

a. Atrioventricular (AV)

i. Mitral

1. Between left ventricle & left atrium

2. 3 valvules, similar to pulmonary valve

3. One lying posteriorly behind left and right anterior cusp

4. Above: aortic sinus, arise to left & right coronary artery

ii. Tricuspid

1. Between right ventricle & right atrium

2. Cuspis anterior, posterior, septalis

3. Chordae tendinae – attached to them and m.papillaries.

4. One lying anteriorly, two other on the right and left posteriorly

b. Semilunar (SL)

i. Aortic

1. Between left ventricle and aorta

2. Cuspis posterior (smaller) to the left n back, anterior (larger) to the right n front.

3. Free margin facing ventricular cavity

ii. Pulmonic


2. Between right ventricle and artery pulmonary

3. Lies at the junction of ventricular wall and pulmonary trunk

4. One valvule lies anteriorly, other two on the right and left posteriorly


3. Branches which form the internal jugular vein

a. Continuation of sigmoid sinus of dura mater of brain in foramen jugularis


4. Circulatory system of newborn

5. Branches of celiac trunk

a. Left gastric artery

b. Common hepatic artery

c. Splenic Artery

Test 3

1. Left ventricle of the heart

a. Situated left and behind right ventricle, forms apex

b. Wall – three times thicker

c. Interventricular septum – separates ventricles bulges into cavity, making crescentic shape

d. Presence of trabeculae carneae

e. Contraction – blood moves through aortic valve into aorta (systemic circulation)


2. Arteries of the heart

a. Source: At the beginning of the aorta

b. Right coronary artery

i. Along coronary sulcus

ii. Goes around right surface of heart

iii. Anastomoses with r.circumflexus of left coronary artery

iv. Biggest branch: r.interventricularis posterior

v. Supplies wall of right ventricle and atrium

c. Left coronary artery

i. Divided into r.interventricularis anterior, r.circumflexa

ii. R.interventricularis anterior : through apex, cardiac notch, anastomoses with r.interventricularis posterior of right coronary artery

iii. Supply the left atrium and ventricles

d. Types of blood supply

i. Right-coronary type: right coronary artery supply the most

ii. Left-coronary type: left coronary artery supply the most

iii. Middle-coronary type: equal distribution


3. Branches which form the cava superior vein

a. Uniting of right and left brachiocephalic veins behind the 1st rib


4. Cava-caval anastomoses

a. Anterior thoracic wall

i. Superior epigastric vein, thoracicoepigastric vein

ii. Inferior epigastric vein, superficial vein

b. Posterior wall of abdomen

i. Azygos vein, hemiazygos vein

ii. Right lumbar veins, left lumbar veins

c. Inside vertebral canal, around vertebral column

i. Spinal veins – posterior intercostal veins

ii. Spinal veins – lumbar veins


5. Branches of the abdominal aorta

a. Inferior phrenic artery

b. Celiac artery

c. Superior mesenteric artery

d. Middle suprarenal artery

e. Renal artery

f. Gonadal artery

g. Lumbar artery

h. Inferior mesenteric artery

i. Median sacral artery

j. Common iliac artery

Test 2

1. Diaphragmatic surface of the heart

a. Adjoins central part of the diaphragm

b. Sulcus interventricular posterior – divides surface of right ventricle and left ventricle

c. Right border – sharp. Left border- less sharp because wall of left ventricle is thick and rounded

d. Left surface – facing up, back, left. Consists of left ventricles n small part of left atrium

e. Right surface – right atrial wall


2. Fibrous rings of the heart




3. Parietal branches of the thoracic aorta

a. Aa.phrenica superiores

b. Aa.intercostales posteriores III-XI


4. Branches which form the portal vein

a. Splenic vein

b. Superior mesenteric vein

c. Inferior mesenteric vein

d. Cystic vein

e. Paraumbilical vein

f. Right & left gastric vein

g. Prepyloric vein


5. Porto-caval anastomoses

a. Anterior abdominal wall

i. Superior epigastric vein (superior vena cava)

ii. Inferior epigastric vein (inferior vena cava)

iii. Paraumbilical veins

b. Cardiac part of stomach

i. Esophageal veins (superior vena cava)

ii. Left gastric vein

c. Wall of rectum

i. Middle rectal vein, inferior rectal vein (inferior vena cava)

ii. Superior rectal vein

Test 1

1. Sternocostal surface of the heart

a. Faces upward, forward, left

b. Situated behind body of sternum, 3rd-6th ribs

c. Sulcus coronarius – transversely, separate atria from ventricles

d. Sulcus interventricularis anterior – borderline between ventricles

e. Greater part – right ventricle, smaller part – left ventricle


2. Draw conducting system of the heart

3. Thoracic part of the aorta and its branches

a. A.bronchialis

b. A.oesophagialis

c. Aa.intercostales posterior


4. Branches which form the cava inferior vein

a. Left and right common iliac veins on level of IV-V lumbar


5. Cava-caval anastomoses

a. Anterior thoracic wall

i. Superior epigastric vein, thoracicoepigastric vein

ii. Inferior epigastric vein, superficial vein

b. Posterior wall of abdomen

i. Azygos vein, hemiazygos vein

ii. Right lumbar veins, left lumbar veins

c. Inside vertebral canal, around vertebral column

i. Spinal veins – posterior intercostal veins

ii. Spinal veins – lumbar veins

7 Responses to “Anatomy – Cardiovascular”

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