Ancient Greek Philosophy
The motherland of western philosophy.
Milesian School of Philosophy
- Come from the town of Miletus
- 1st philosopher : Presocratics.
- Finding primary matter principles of all things.
- Rational explanation of the world must start with identification of primary matter.
- 3 most famous philosophers – Thales, Anaximander, Anaximenes.
- Thales: Water
- Anaximander: Apeiron – “limitless, formless substance without qualities”
- Anaximenes: Air
Heraclitus of Ephesus
- Main idea: Orde Logos governing all things.
- Meaning of ‘logos’ = word, reason, principle/law.
- Cosmic principle that gives order and rationality to the world.
- Associated with fire.
- Work out the theory about constant of potential flux.
- Famous quotes:
- “You can step into the same river twice”
- “All things forever change”
- The 1st philosopher with the idea of Dialectic – doctrine/teaching about dynamic development of the world.
- Basic law of Dialectic by him – “Unity and Struggle of Opposites”
- Keyword: “War” – the father & king.
- Cosmic history arranges in cycles which beginning & ending in fire.
- To strive, all things arise & passed away. Only one is constant – logos.
Empedocles of Agrigentum
- Believes in 4 Primary Matters:
- Proposed idea of 2 multiforces:
- Love (Union)
- Strive (Separation)
Eleatic School of Philosophy
- 3 most famous philosophers of Eleatic – Parmenidas, Xenophanes, Zeno.
- Search of relationship between unity and multiplicity.
- Only one real existence, multiplicity is illusion.
- According to Parmenidas – Real being must be ungenerated in pair shape, indivisible, perfect, motionless, unchangeable.
Pythagoras of Samos
- 1st philosopher to use term “Philosophy”
- “Philo” – “love”, “Sophy” – “wisdom”
- Believes in religious society as a member of self-discipline and silence.
- Way of life
- Practice of moral values
- Training of the memory
- Ritual taboos/prohibitions, for example – prohibit eating flesh & beans.
- Has 2 students
- Philolaus – 1st scientist who understood that earth is a moving planet.
- Archytas – mathematician, speciality in musical mathematic theory.
- Doctrine = Cycle of Reincarnation
- Postulated the existence of world-soul.
- Universe – Perfect harmony, dependance on ‘numbers’.
- Can have different meaning. Example: 2 is man, 3 is woman, 2+3=5 : 5 is marriage.
- Can have geometrical meaning. 1 is one. 2 is a line. 3 is a plane. 4 is space.
- Mystical “Tetractys” = 1,2,3,4. 1+2+3+4=10, 10 is perfect.
Atomism School of Philosophy
- From the word ‘Atomos’ = Indivisible.
- Founder is Leusippus.
- Famous philosopher – Democritus.
- Atomism = materialist theory according to which nothing exists except atoms and void.
- Atoms = indivisible small particle of matter, exist in empty spaces (void) which it moves.
- Differences in atom (size, shape, speed etc) are used to explain the fact that there are all kinds of things in the world.
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