Latin Language – Basic


Latin Language

·     Vowels – a,e,i,o,u,y

·     Pronounciation of vowels

o    Aa        /a/

o    Ee         /e/

o    Oo        /o/

o    Ii          /i/

o    Uu        /u/

o    Yy         /i/

·     The letter ‘y’ in a word indicates to the Greek origin.

·     ‘i’ at the beginning of a word before a vowel and between vowels is pronounced as /j/.

o    /j/         ia          /ja/

o    /j/         ie          /je/

o    /j/         io          /jo/

o    /j/         iu          /ju/

·     4 diphtongs – combination of two vowels in one syllable.

o    Ae        /e/

o    Oe        /e/

o    Au        /au/

o    Eu         /eu/

·     If combinations ae, oe, the letter e has two dots above (ё), these letters are read separately.


·     Pronounciation of consonants.

o    Cc         /ts/       – if followed by e,i,y,ae,oe

o    Cc         /k/        – if followed by a,o,u, consonants, and at the end of words

o    Ss         /s/        – normal

o    Ss         /z/        – between vowels, or between vowels and the semivowels

o    Ll          /l/         – pronounced mildly

o    Xx        /ks/      – normal

o    Zz         /z/        – Greek origin.


·     Pronounciation of combination of letters.

o    Qu        /kv/

o    Ngu       /ngv/    – if followed by a vowel

o    Ngu       /ng/      – if followed by a consonant

o    Ti          /ti/

o    Ti          /tsi/      – if followed by a vowel at the end of word, except after ‘x’.


·     Greek digraphs – words of Greek origin.

o    Ch        /h/

o    Ph         /f/

o    Rh        /r/

o    Th         /t/


·     Rules of stress

o    Syllables are counted from the end of a word:

§   Co-ro-na

§   3 – 2 – 1

o    Stress do not fall on the first syllabus

§   Pa-la-ti-nus

§   4 – 3 – 2 – 1

o    In disyllabic words, the stress fall on the first vowel

o    In word of more than two syllables:

§   Long stress fall on the second syllable

§   Short stress fall on the third syllable

·     The syllable is long, if

o    It has a diphtong

o    A vowel is before 2-3 consonants, or ‘x’,’z’

o    The suffixes –al,-ar,-at,-os,-ur,-tur,-in are long

·     The syllable is short if

o    A vowel before another vowel, or ‘h’

o    A vowel before the combination of consonants b,c,d,g,p,t with l,r

o    A vowel before Greek digraphs

o    The suffixes –ul,-ol,-ic,-ilis,-bilis are short.


·     3 gender of nouns

o    Masculine

o    Feminine

o    Neuter

·     2 numbers of nouns

o    Singular

o    Plural

·     6 cases of nouns

o    Nominative

o    Genetive

o    Dative

o    Accusative

o    Instrumental

o    Vocative

·     5 declensions of nouns

o    Ending in genetive case,

§   –ae       1st

§   –i          2nd

§   –is        3rd

§   –us       4th

§   –ei        5th


·     The vocabulary form

o    3 Components

§   Noun in the Nom.sing.

§   Ending of Gen.sing.

§   Indication of gender (m,f,n)


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