Latin Language – Basic
· Vowels – a,e,i,o,u,y
· Pronounciation of vowels
o Aa /a/
o Ee /e/
o Oo /o/
o Ii /i/
o Uu /u/
o Yy /i/
· The letter ‘y’ in a word indicates to the Greek origin.
· ‘i’ at the beginning of a word before a vowel and between vowels is pronounced as /j/.
o /j/ ia /ja/
o /j/ ie /je/
o /j/ io /jo/
o /j/ iu /ju/
· 4 diphtongs – combination of two vowels in one syllable.
o Ae /e/
o Oe /e/
o Au /au/
o Eu /eu/
· If combinations ae, oe, the letter e has two dots above (ё), these letters are read separately.
· Pronounciation of consonants.
o Cc /ts/ – if followed by e,i,y,ae,oe
o Cc /k/ – if followed by a,o,u, consonants, and at the end of words
o Ss /s/ – normal
o Ss /z/ – between vowels, or between vowels and the semivowels
o Ll /l/ – pronounced mildly
o Xx /ks/ – normal
o Zz /z/ – Greek origin.
· Pronounciation of combination of letters.
o Qu /kv/
o Ngu /ngv/ – if followed by a vowel
o Ngu /ng/ – if followed by a consonant
o Ti /ti/
o Ti /tsi/ – if followed by a vowel at the end of word, except after ‘x’.
· Greek digraphs – words of Greek origin.
o Ch /h/
o Ph /f/
o Rh /r/
o Th /t/
· Rules of stress
o Syllables are counted from the end of a word:
§ 3 – 2 – 1
o Stress do not fall on the first syllabus
§ 4 – 3 – 2 –
o In disyllabic words, the stress fall on the first vowel
o In word of more than two syllables:
§ Long stress fall on the second syllable
§ Short stress fall on the third syllable
· The syllable is long, if
o It has a diphtong
o A vowel is before 2-3 consonants, or ‘x’,’z’
o The suffixes –al,-ar,-at,-os,-ur,-tur,-in are long
· The syllable is short if
o A vowel before another vowel, or ‘h’
o A vowel before the combination of consonants b,c,d,g,p,t with l,r
o A vowel before Greek digraphs
o The suffixes –ul,-ol,-ic,-ilis,-bilis are short.
· 3 gender of nouns
· 2 numbers of nouns
· 6 cases of nouns
· 5 declensions of nouns
o Ending in genetive case,
§ –ae 1st
§ –i 2nd
§ –is 3rd
§ –us 4th
§ –ei 5th
· The vocabulary form
o 3 Components
§ Noun in the Nom.sing.
§ Ending of Gen.sing.
§ Indication of gender (m,f,n)
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