Anatomy Mnemonics

09Jan08

 WARNING: Most mnemonics are 18SX and “dirty”. Intended for educational purposes only.

Pterygoid muscles: function of lateral vs. medial

“Look at how your jaw ends up when saying first syllable of ‘Lateral’ or ‘Medial'”:

“La”: your jaw is now open, so Lateral opens mouth.
“Me”: your jaw is still closed, so medial closes the mandible.

Supine vs. prone body position

“Supine is on your spine. Therefore, prone’s the “other” one. • Also, prone to suffocate in prone position.

Meckel’s diverticulum details

2 inches long. 2 feet from end of ileum. 2 times more common in men. 2% occurrence in population. 2 types of tissues may be present.

 Note: “di-” means “two”, so diverticulum is the thing with all the twos.

Perineal vs. peroneal

Perineal is in between the legs. Peroneal is on the leg.

Anterior forearm muscles: superficial group

There are five, like five digits of your hand. Place your thumb into your palm, then lay that hand palm down on your other arm.

Your 4 fingers now show distribution: spells PFPF [pass/fail, pass/fail]: Pronator teres, Flexor carpi radialis, Palmaris longus, Flexor carpi ulnaris

Your thumb below your 4 fingers shows the muscle which is deep to the other four: Flexor digitorum superficialis.

Carpal tunnel syndrome causes

MEDIAN TRAP: – Myxoedema,  Edema premenstrually,  Diabetes,  Idiopathic Agromegaly, Neoplasm, Trauma, Rheumatoid arthritis, Amyloidosis,  Pregnancy

• Mnemonic fits nicely since median nerve is trapped.

Lumbar plexus “I, I Get Laid On Fridays”:

Iliohypogastric [L1]
Ilioinguinal [L1]
Genitofemoral [L1, L2]
Lateral femoral cutaneous [L2, L3]
Obtruator [L2, L3, L4]
Femoral [L2, L3, L4]

Alternatively: “I twice Get Laid On Fridays”.

Alternatively: “Interested In Getting Laid On Fridays?”

Elbow: muscles that flex it

Three B’s Bend the elBow: Brachialis, Biceps, Brachioradialis

Cavernous sinus contents O TOM CAT:

O TOM are lateral wall components, in order from superior to inferior. CA are the components within the sinus, from medial to lateral. CA ends at the level of T from O TOM.

Occulomotor nerve (III), Trochlear nerve (IV), Ophthalmic nerve (V1), Maxillary nerve (V2), Carotid artery, Abducent nerve (VI) T:

When written, connects to the T of OTOM.

Bronchi: which one is more vertical

“Inhale a bite, goes down the right”: Inhaled objects more likely to lodge in right bronchus, since it is the one that is more vertical

Carotid sheath contents “I See 10 CC’s in the IV”:

I See (I.C.) = Internal Carotid artery
10 = CN 10 (Vagus nerve)
CC = Common Carotid artery
IV = Internal Jugular Vein

V3 innervated muscles “My A$$ Meets The Toilet”:

Mylohyoid
Anterior digastric
Muscles of Mastication
Tensor veli palatini
Tensor tympani

Inferior vena cava tributaries “I Like To Rise So High”:

Illiacs
Lumbar
Testicular
Renal
Suprarenal
Hepatic vein.

• Think of the IVC wanting to rise high up to the heart.

Spleen: dimensions, weight, surface anatomy “1,3,5,7,9,11”:

Spleen dimensions are 1 inch x 3 inches x 5 inches.
Weight is 7 ounces.
It underlies ribs 9 through 11.

Heart valve sequence “Try Pulling My Aorta”:

Tricuspid
Pulmonary
Mitral
Aorta

Liver: side with ligamentum venosum/ caudate lobe vs. side with quadrate lobe/ ligamentum teres “VC goes with VC”:

The Venosum and Caudate is on same side as Vena Cava [posterior]. Therefore, quadrate and teres must be on anterior by default.

Cranial bones “PEST OF 6″:

Parietal
Ethmoid
Sphenoid
Temporal
Occipital
Frontal

The 6 just reminds that there’s 6 of them to remember.

Thyroid: isthmus location “Rings 2,3,4 make the isthmus floor”:

Isthmus overlies tracheal rings 2,3,4

Cervical plexus: arrangement of the important nerves “GLAST”:

• 4 compass points: clockwise from north on the right side of neck:
– Great auricular
– Lesser occipital
– Accessory nerve pops out between L and S
– Supraclavicular
– Transverse cervical

Lumbar plexus roots “2 from 1, 2 from 2, 2 from 3″:

2 nerves from 1 root: Ilioinguinal (L1), Iliohypogastric (L1).
2 nerves from 2 roots: Genitofemoral (L1,L2), Lateral Femoral (L2,L3).
2 nerves from 3 roots: Obturator (L2,L3,L4), Femoral (L2,L3,L4).

Joints in the midline “SC”:

In medial line, below Second Cervical, joints are Secondary Cartilaginous and usually have a diSC.

• Notes: secondary cartilaginous is also known as symphysis. The one that doesn’t have a disc is xiphi-sternal.

Anterior forearm muscles: superficial group “Pimps F*ck Prostitutes For Fun”:

Pronator teres
Flexor carpi radialis
Palmaris longous
Flexor carpi ulnaris
Flexor digitorum superficialis

External carotid artery branches “Some Aggressive Lovers Find Odd Positions More Stimulating”:

Superior thyroid
Ascending pharyngeal
Lingual
Facial
Occiptal
Posterior auricular
Maxillary
Superficial temporal

Axillary artery branches “Screw The Lawyer Save A Patient”:

Superior thoracic
Thoracoacromiol
Lateral thoracic
Subscapular
Anterior circumflex humeral
Posterior circumflex humeral

Descending abdominal aorta branches from diaphragm to iliacs “Prostitutes Cause Sagging Swollen Red Testicles [in men] Living In Sin”:

Phrenic [inferior]
Celiac
Superior mesenteric
Suprarenal [middle]
Renal
Testicular [“in men” only]
Lumbars
Inferior mesenteric
Sacral

Inversion vs. eversion muscles in leg
Second letter rule for inversion/eversion:

• Eversion muscles:
– pErineus longus
– pErineus brevis
– pErineus terius

• Inversion muscles:
– tIbialis anterior
– tIbialis posterior

External carotid artery branches “Sister Lucy’s Powdered Face Often Attracts Silly Medicos”:

• Before entering the parotid gland:
– Superior thyroid
– Lingual
– Posterior auricular
– Facial
– Occipital
– Ascending pharyngeal

• Ends as:
– Superficial temporal and
– Maxillary bifurcating in the in the parotid gland

Spermatic cord contents “3 arteries, 3 nerves, 3 other things”:

3 arteries: testicular, ductus deferens, cremasteric.
3 nerves: genital branch of the genitofemoral, cremasteric, autonomics.
3 other things: ductus deferens, pampiniform plexus, lymphatics.

• Note some argument about this: Moore doesn’t put in cremasteric nerve, Lumley puts in inguinal…

Fibula vs. tibia: which is the bigger one

People talk of telling just a “little white lie”, or a “little fib”:
Therefore, the fibula is smaller.

• Alternatively: TIBia is the Thicker Inner Bone.

• Alternatively: “Little lat FIB, big fat TIB”.

Interossei muscles: actions of dorsal vs. palmar in hand “PAd and DAb”:

The Palmar Adduct and the Dorsal Abduct.
• Use your hand to dab with a pad.

Thoracic duct: relation to azygous vein and esophagus “The duck between 2 gooses”:

Thoracic duct (duck) is between 2 gooses, azygous and esophagus.

Lumbricals action

Lumbrical action is to hold a pea, that is to flex the metacarpophalangeal joint and extend the interphalangeal joints. When look at hand in this position, can see this makes an “L” shape, since L is for Lumbrical.

Pectoral nerves: path of lateral vs. medial “Lateral Less, Medial More”:

Lateral pectoral nerve only goes through Pectoralis major, but

Medial pectoral nerve goes though both Pectoralis major and minor.

Intrinsic muscles of hand (palmar surface) “A OF A OF A”:

• Thenar, lateral to medial:
– Abductor pollicis longus
– Opponens pollicis
– Flexor pollicis brevis
– Adductor pollicis.

• Hypothenar, lateral to medial:
– Opponens digiti minimi
– Flexor digiti minimi
– Abductor digiti minimi

Diaphragm innervation “3, 4, 5 keeps the diaphragm alive”:

Diaphragm innervation is cervical roots 3, 4, and 5.

Femoral triangle: arrangement of contents NAVEL:

• From lateral hip towards medial navel:
– Nerve (directly behind sheath)
– Artery (within sheath)
– Vein (within sheath)
– Empty space (between vein and lymph)
– Lymphatics (with deep inguinal node)

• Nerve/Artery/Vein are all called Femoral.

Lingual nerve course

The Lingual nerve
Took a curve
Around the Hyoglossus.
“Well I’ll be f*#ked!”
Said Wharton’s Duct,
“The bastard’s gone and crossed us!”

External carotid artery branches

“Some Anatomists Like F*#king, Others Prefer S & M”:
– Superior thyroid
– Ascending pharyngeal
– Lingual
– Facial
– Occipital
– Posterior auricular
– Superficial temporal
– Maxillary

• Alternatively: As She Lay Flat, Oscar’s Passion Slowly Mounted”.

Abdominal muscles

“Spare TIRE around their abdomen”:
– Transversus abdominis
– Internal abdominal oblique
– Rectus abdominis
– External abdominal oblique

Bicipital groove: attachments of muscles near it

“The lady between two majors”:
– Teres major attaches to medial lip of groove.
– Pectoralis major to lateral lip of groove.
– Latissimus (Lady) is on floor of groove, between the 2 majors.

Carpal bones

“Some Lovers Try Positions That They Can’t Handle”:
• Proximal row then distal row, both lateral-to-medial:
– Scaphoid
– Lunate
– Triquetrium
– Pisiform
– Trapezium
– Trapezoid
– Capate
– Hamate

• Alternatively: “Scared Lovers…”
• Alternatively: “Senior Lecturers…”.

Bronchi: which is more vertical “Right on Red”:

Many places allow making a right hand turn at a red light, if you first come to a complete stop.

A child swallowing a red penny is more likely to get it stopped down the right bronchus, since it is more vertical.

L4 landmark: 2 items “B4U” [before you]:

Bifurcation of aorta
L4
Umbilicus

Retroperitoneal structures list

SAD PUCKER:
– Suprarenal glands
– Aorta & IVC
– Duodenum (half)
– Pancreas
– Ureters
– Colon (ascending & descending)
– Kidneys
– Esophagus (anterior & left covered)
– Rectum

External carotid artery branches “Some Aberdeen Ladies F#ck, Others Prefer Manual Stimulation”:

• From inferior to superior:
– Superior thyroid
– Ascending pharyngeal
– Lingual
– Facial
– Occipital
– Posterior auricular
– Maxillary
– Superficial temporal

Superior mediastinum: contents

PVT Left BATTLE:
– Phrenic nerve
– Vagus nerve
– Thoracic duct
– Left recurrent laryngeal nerve (not the right)
– Brachiocephalic veins
– Aortic arch (and its 3 branches)
– Thymus
– Trachea
– Lymph nodes
– Esophagus

Retroperitoneal organs (major)

“AC/DC Rocker Kids Party Down”:
– Ascending Colon
– Descending Colon
– Rectum
– Kidneys
– Pancreas
– Duodenum

Bell’s palsy: symptoms

BELL’S Palsy:
– Blink reflex abnormal
– Earache
– Lacrimation [deficient, excess]
– Loss of taste
– Sudden onset
– Palsy of VII nerve muscles

• All symptoms are unilateral.

Liver inferior markings showing right/left lobe vs. vascular divisions

There’s a Hepatic “H” on inferior of liver. One vertical stick of the H is the dividing line for anatomical right/left lobe and the other vertical stick is the divider for vascular halves.

Stick that divides the liver into vascular halves is the one with vena cava impression (since vena cava carries blood, it’s fortunate that it’s the divider for blood halves).

Extraocular muscles cranial nerve innervation “LR6SO4 rest 3″:

Lateral Rectus is 6th
Superior Oblique is 4th
rest are all 3rd cranial nerve

Femoral hernia: epidemiology

FEMoral hernias are more common in FEMales.

Obturator canal: relations of structures “Who’s flying in the top of Obturator canal? Obviously Not A Vein!”:

Obturator
Nerve
Artery
Vein

Thoracoacromial artery branches ABCD:

Acromial
Breast (pectoral)
Clavicular
Deltoid

Diaphram aperatures: spinal levels “Come Enter the Abdomen:

Vena Cava [8]
Esophagus [10]
Aorta [12]

Cubital fossa contents
“My Bottoms Turned Red”:

• From medial to lateral:
– Median nerve
– Brachial artery
– Tendon of biceps
– Radial nerve

Thyroids: relative sizes

Thyroid looks like a bra.
Breasts are bigger in women, so thyroid bigger in women.
Pregnant women have biggest breasts of all, so they have the biggest thyroids.

Kidney hilums at transpyloric plane [L1]

L-1 goes through hilum of only 1 kidney, and it’s the Left one.

Radial nerve: muscles supplied (simplified) “BEST muscles”:

Brachioradialis
Extensors
Supinator
Triceps

Superior orbital fissure: structures passing through “Lazy French Tarts Lie Naked In Anticipation Of Sex”:

Lacrimal nerve
Frontal nerve
Trochlear nerve
Lateral nerve
Nasociliary nerve
Internal nerve
Abducens nerve
Ophthalmic veins
Sympathetic nerves

Cranial bones”Fraternity Parties Occasionally Teach Spam Etiquette”:

• The first two letters of each bone: Frontal, Parietal, Occipital, Temporal, Sphenoid, Ethmoid.

Internal iliac artery: posterior branchPILS:

Posterior branch, Iliolumbar, Lateral sacral, Superior gluteal

Foramen ovale contents OVALE:

Otic ganglion (just inferior), V3 cranial nerve, Accessory meningeal artery, Lesser petrosal nerve, Emisary veins

Anatomical planes: coronal, horizontal, sagittal

Coronal: A classic painting/stained glass window of a saint/angel has a corona radiating around the person’s head. The plane of the glass/page is cutting their head in the coronal plane.

Horizontal: Someone coming over the horizon has their abdomen cut in the horizontal plane.

Sagittal: the remaining one by default.

Brachial plexus branches”My Aunt Raped My Uncle”:

• From lateral to medial: Musculocutaneous Axillary Radial Median Ulnar

Tibia vs. fibula: which is lateral

The FibuLA is LAteral.

Superior orbital fissure: structures passing through “Lonely Fat Teenage Virgins Rarely Like Swallowing And Never Ingest”:

Lacrimal nerve, Frontal nerve, Trochlear nerve, Vein: ophthalmic Ring: tendinous

• From the ring, arises: Lateral rectus, Superior division III, Abducent nerve Nasociliary nerve, Inferior divison III

Brachial plexus: branches of posterior cordSTAR:

Subscapular [upper and lower], Thoracodorsal, Axillary, Radial

Dermatome C6 location

Stick arm out like crucifixion stance. Curl your thumb and forefinger into an “OK” symbol while keeping your other fingers straight. Your hand should now look like a 6 shape. So C6 dermatome is your thumb and top of arm (reason for crucifix stance)

Heart valves
“Toilet Paper My A$$”:

• From right to left: Tricuspid, Pulmonic, Mitral, Aortic

Median nerve: hand muscles innervated “The LOAF muscles”:

- Lumbricals 1 and 2
– Opponens pollicis
– Abductor pollicis brevis
– Flexor pollicis brevis

• Alternatively: LLOAF, with 2 L’s, to recall there’s 2 lumbricals.
• To remember that these are the Median nerve muscles, think “Meat LOAF”.

Interossei muscles: number of palmars vs. dorsals “3 on the P, 4 on the Dor”:

There are 3 Palmar, and 4 Dorsal interossei.

Carpal bones: trapezium vs. trapezoid location

• Since there’s two T’s in carpal bone mnemonic sentences, need to know which T is where:

TrapeziUM is by the thUMB, TrapeziOID is inSIDE.

• Alternatively, TrapeziUM is by the thUMB, TrapezOID is by its SIDE.

Sperm pathway through male reproductive tract SEVEN UP:

Seminiferous tubules
Epididymis
Vas deferens
Ejaculatory duct
Nothing
Urethra
Penis

Ureter to ovarian/testicular artery relation “Water under the bridge”:

The ureters (which carry water), are posterior to the ovarian/testicular artery.

• Clinically important, since a common surgical error is to cut ureter instead of ovarian artery when removing uterus.

Soleus vs. gastrocnemius muscle function “Stand on your Soles. Explosive gas”:

You stand on soles of your shoes, so Soleus is for posture.
Gasoline is explosive, so Gastrocnemius is for explosive movement.

Serratus anterior: innervation and action “C5-6-7 raise your arms up to heaven”:

Long thoracic nerve roots (567) innervate Serratus anterior.

• Test C567 roots clinically by ability to raise arm past 90 degrees.

Wrist: radial side vs. ulnar side

Make a fist with your thumb up in the air and say “Rad!”.

Your thumb is now pointing to your Radius.

• Note: ‘Rad!’ was a late 80’s catchphrase, short for ‘Radical’. Things that were good were called ‘Rad’.

Medial malleolus:
order of tendons, artery, nerve behind it “Tom, Dick, And Nervous Harry”:

• From anterior to posterior:
– Tibialis
– Digitorum
– Artery
– Nerve
– Hallicus

• Full names for these are: Tibialis Posterior, Flexor Digitorum Longus, Posterior Tibial Artery, Posterior Tibial Nerve, Flexor Hallicus Longus.

• Alternatively: “Tom, Dick ANd Harry”.
• Alternatively: “Tom, Dick And Not Harry”.

Diaphragm apertures “3 holes, each with 3 things going through it”:

Aortic hiatus: aorta, thoracic duct, azygous vein.

Esophageal hiatus: esophagus, vagal trunks, left gastric vessels.

Caval foramen: inferior vena cava, right phrenic nerve, lymph nodes.

Buttock quadrant safest for needle insertion “Shut up and butt out”:

The Upper Outer quadrant of the Buttock safely avoids hitting sciatic nerve.

Superior thyroid artery branches “May I Softly Squeeze Charlie’s Girl?”:

Muscular
Infrahyoid
Superior laryngeal
Sternomastoid
Cricothyroid
Glandular

Deep tendon reflexes: root supply “1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8”:

S1-2: ankle
L3-4: knee
C5-6: biceps, supinator
C7-8: triceps

Vertebrae: recognizing a thoracic from lumbar

Examine vertebral body shape:
Thoracic is heart-shaped body since your heart is in your thorax.
Lumbar is kidney-bean shaped since kidneys are in lumbar area.

Cubital fossa contents MBBR:

• From medial to lateral:
Median nerve
Brachial artery
Biceps tendon
Radial nerve

Ear: bones of inner ear

Take a Hammer: Malleus
Hit an Indian Elephant: Incus
It puts its foot in a stirrup: Stapes

• Describes the shape, and relative position (from out to in) of the inner ear bones.
• Alternatively: “Mailing Includes Stamps”.

Popliteal fossa: muscles arrangement

The two Semi’s go together, Semimembranosus and Semitendonosus.

The Membranosus is Medial and since the two semis go together, Semitendonosus is also medial.

Therefore, Biceps Femoris has to be lateral.
Of the semi’s, to remember which one is superficial: the Tendonosus is on Top.

CN VII innervated muscles (branchial arch 2 derivatives)
“Imagine someone making the facial expression to say ‘PSS…’ “:

Facial expression muscles
Posterior belly of digastric
Stapedius
Stylohyoid

Carpal bones
“Scottish Lads Take Prostitutes To The Caledonian Hotel”:

• Proximal row, then distal row:
Scaphoid
Lunate
Triquetrium
Pisiform
Trapezium
Trapezoid
Capate
Hamate

• Alternatively: “Students Like Taking Prostitutes To The Carelton Hotel”.

Bronchopulmonary segments of the left lung “Astute Anatomists Share Inside Secrets About Lungs”:

Apicoposterior (S1+2)
Anterior (S3)
Superior (S4)
Inferior (S5)
Superior (S6)
Anteromedial basal (S7+8)
Lateral basal (S9)

Biceps brachii muscle: origins
“You walk shorter to a street corner. You ride longer on a superhighway.”:

• Short head originates from coracoid process.
• Long head originates from the supraglenoid cavity.

Extrinsic muscles of tongue [for pro soccer fans] “Paris St. Germain’s Hour”:

Palatoglossus
Styloglossus
Genioglossus
Hyoglossus

• PSG is a French soccer team (foreign), hence extrinsic comes to mind.

Anteflexed vs. anteverted: what bodypart each describes “Anteflexed and Anteverted both bend toward Anterior”.

• The “V” words go together: Verted is for the cerVix (therefore flexed must be uterus).

Lung lobe numbers: right vs. left

Tricuspid heart valve and tri-lobed lung both on the right side.

Bicuspid and bi-lobed lung both on the left side.

Axillary artery branches “Send The Lord to Say A Prayer”:

• From proximal to distal:
Superior thoracic
Thoracacromial
Lateral thoracic
Subscapular
Anterior circumflex humeral
Posterior circumflex humeral

Foramen spinosum: location on base of skull

Foramen spinosum is adjacent to the spine of sphenoid.

Tonsils: The three types “PPL (people) have tonsils”:

Pharyngeal
Palatine
Lingual

Palmaris longus: location, relative to wrist nerves “The Palmaris between two Palmars”:

Palmaris longus is between the Palmar cutaneous branch of Ulnar nerve and Palmar cutaneous branch of Median nerve.

Hyoid bone: muscle attachments “Christ, He Didn’t Screw Girls Much. That’s Obvious, Stupid”:

• The first sentence is for 6 muscles attaching superiorly, the second sentence is for 3 muscles attaching inferiorly.

• Both sentences are in order from lateral to medial:
Constricter (middle)
Hyoglossus
Digastric
Stylohyoid
Geniohyoid
Myloyoid
Thyrohyoid
Omohyoid
Sternohyoid

Lung lobes: segments of right middle lobe “ML=ML”:

Segments of Middle Lobe are Medial & Lateral.

Female pelvic organs’ blood supply “3 organs, each get 2 blood supplies”:

Uterus: uterine, vaginal.
Rectum: middle rectal, inferior rectal [inferior rectal is the end of pudendal].
Bladder: superior vesical, inferior vesical.

Face muscles: large muscle groups’ cranial innervation

Mandibular nerve: Mastication.
Facial nerve: Facial expression.

Femoral triangle: arrangement of nerve, artery, vein VAN:

• From medial to lateral:
Vein
Artery
Nerve

• Nerve/Artery/Vein are all called Femoral.

Cranial bones “Old Pygmies From Thailand Eat Skulls”:

Occipital
Parietal
Frontal
Temporal
Ethmoid
Sphenoid

• Note: ‘skull-eating pygmies’ helps remind that mnemonic is for the skull.
• Alternatively: “Old People From Texas Eat Spiders”.
• Alternatively: “Prostitutes Offer Free Sex To Everyone”.

Psoas major: innervation

If you hit L2, 3, 4
Psoas gets sore!

Ansa cervicalis nerves “GHost THought SOmeone STupid SHot Irene”:

Geniohyoid
Thyrohyoid
Superior Omohyoid
Sternothyroid
Sternohyoid
Inferior omohyoid

Leg: anterior muscles of leg “Tom’s Hairy ANd Dirty Penis”:

T: Tibialis anterior
H: extensor Hollicis longus
AN: anterior tibial Artery & deep fibular Nerve
D: extensor Digitorum longus
P: Peronius tertius [aka fibularis tertius]

Eye rotation by oblique muscles “I Love S&M”:

Inferior oblique: Lateral eye rotation.
Superior oblique: Medial eye rotation.

Inversion vs. eversion direction in the foot

Little INtroVERted boys roll their feet in when talking to girls.

Also, can just watch which way the sole of the foot goes: does it face in or out?

Bowel components
“Dow Jones Industrial Average Closing Stock Report”:

• From proximal to distal: Duodenum, Jejunum, Ileum, Appendix, Colon, Sigmoid, Rectum

• Alternatively: to include the cecum, “Dow Jones Industrial Climbing Average Closing Stock Report”.

Ulnar nerve to ulnar artery and radial nerve to radial artery relations

Think “peripheral nerves”: The ulnar nerve is “ulnar” to the ulnar artery. Radial nerve is “radial” to the radial artery.

Carpal bones
“Her C#nt’s Too Tight So Lubricate The Penis”:

• Anticlockwise: Hamate, Capate, Trapezoid, Trapezium, Scaphoid, Lunate, Triquetral, Pisiform

Oblique muscles: direction of externals vs. internals
“Hands in your pockets”:

When put hands in your pockets, fingers now lie on top of external obliques and fingers point their direction of fibers: down and towards midline.

• Note: “oblique” tells that must be going at an angle.

• Internal obliques are at right angles to external.

Duodenum: lengths of parts”Counting 1 to 4 but staggered”:

1st part: 2 inches, 2nd part: 3 inches, 3rd part: 4 inches, 4th part: 1 inch

Elbow: which side has common flexor origin

FM (as in FM Radio): Flexor Medial, so Common Flexor Origin is on the medial

Carpal bones
“She Licks Toms Prick; Her Cu*t’s Too Tight”:

Scaphoid Lunate Triquetrum Pisiform Hamate Capitate Trapezoid Trapezium

Supination vs. pronation: which is more powerful

Screws were designed to be tightened well by majority of people. “Righty tighty”: to tighten screws you turn to the right.

Majority of people are right-handed. Turning right-hand to the right is supination.

Median and ulnar nerves: common features

Each supply 1/2 of flexor digitorum profundus. Each supplies 2 lumbricals. Each has a palmar cutaneous nerve that pops off prematurely. Each supplies an eminence group of muscles [ulnar: hypothenar. median: thenar]. Each enters forearm through two heads [ulnar: heads of flexor carpi ulnaris. median: heads of pronator teres]. Each has no branches in upper arm. Each makes two fingers claw when cut at wrist. Each supplies a palmaris [median: palmaris longus. ulnar: palmaris brevis].

Bowel components “Dublin Sisters Ceramic Red Colored Jewelry Apparently Illegal”:

• 2-4 letters of each component:
Duodenum
Sigmoid
Cecum
Rectum
Colon
Jejunum
Appendix
Ileum

Thoracic duct: which half of upper body does it drain

Know drains all of lower body, but was it the right or the left part of the upper body?

Answer: its Lymph from the Left of the upper body.

Mediastinums: posterior mediastinum structures

There are 4 birds:
The esophaGOOSE (esophagus)
The vaGOOSE nerve
The azyGOOSE vein
The thoracic DUCK (duct)

Maxillary artery branches
“DAM I AM Piss Drunk But Stupid Drunk I Prefer, Must Phone Alcoholics Anonymous”:

Deep auricular
Anterior tympanic
Middle meningeal
Inferior alveolar
Accessory meningeal
Masseteric
Pterygoid
Deep temporal
Buccal
Sphenopalatine
Descending palatine
Infraorbital
Posterior superior alveolar
Middle superior alveolar
Pharyngeal
Anterior superior alveolar
Artery of the pterygoid canal

Ulna bone: quick recognition in oral exam

The Ulnar bone has a “U” at the end where it goes over the trochlea.

Vetebrae subtypes “Certain Doctors Luv Saddling Coeds”:

• From superior to inferior:
Cervical
Dorsal
Lumbar
Sacrum
Coccyx

External carotid artery branches StApLE OPIS:

Superior thyroid
Ascending pharyngeal
Lingual
External maxillary (facial)
Occipital
Posterior auricular
Internal maxillary
Superficial temporal

Carpal bones “The boat sailed to the moon with 3 pEas in a rOw, at the wheel was Captain Hook”:

• Carpal bones in order of occurrence:
Boat is scaphoid. Moon is lunate. 3 is triquetrum. Peas is pisiform (stressing the E sound for trapezium). Row is trapezoid (stressing the O for trapezOid). Captain is capitate. Hook is hamate (hamate has the hook).

Coelic trunk: branches Left Hand Side (LHS):

Left gastric artery
Hepatic artery
Splenic artery

Penis: spinal level innervation “S2, 3, 4 keep the penis off the floor”:

• Alternatively: “S2, 3, 4 make a mess on the floor”.

Penis innervated by pudendal nerve branches, derived from spinal cord levels S2-4.

Thoracic cage: relations to the important venous structures

Behind the sternoclavicular joints: the brachiocephalic veins begin.
Behind the 1st costal cartilage on the right the superior vena cava begins.
Behind the 2nd costal cartilage on the right the azygos vein ends.
Behind the 3rd costal cartilage on the right the superior vena cava ends.

Lacrimal nerve course “Lacrimal’s story of 8 L’s”:

Lacrimal nerve runs on Lateral wall of orbit above Lateral rectus, then Lets communicating branch join in, then supplies Lacrimal gland, then Leaves it and supplies Lateral upper eye Lid!

Spermatic cord contents “Piles Don’t Contribute To A Good Sex Life”:

Pampiniform plexus
Ductus deferens
Cremasteric artery
Testicular artery
Artery of the ductus deferens
Genital branch of the genitofemoral nerve
Sympathetic nerve fibers
Lymphatic vessels

Brachial plexus organization “The Castrated Dog Turns Rabid”:

• From lateral to medial:
Terminal branches
Cords
Divisions
Trunks
Roots

Lordosis vs. kyphosis Lordosis: Lumbar.

KYphosis is HY up on the spine.

Carpal bones “Happy Cat Tom Took Pie To Little Sister”:

Hamate
Capitate
Trapezoid
Trapezium
Pisiform
Triquital
Lunate
Scaphoid

Plantarflexion vs. dorsiflexion

Plantar flexion occurs when you squish a Plant with your foot.

Autonomics to the gut “The PARAsympathetics follow a rule of TWO” [pair = two]:

• The vagus does the top, the sacral splanchnics the outflow tract.

“The sympathetics follow a rule of threes”:
• Greater, lesser, least splanchnic nerves go to the celiac,superior and inferior mesenteric ganglion.

Adductor magnus innervation “AM SO!”:

Adductor Magnus innervated by Sciatic and Obturator.

Carpal tunnel syndrome: causes TRAMP:

Trauma (occupational)
Rheumatiod arthritis
Acromegaly
Myxoedema
Pregnancy

• Alternatively: ARMPIT to include Idiopathic.

Musculocutaneous nerve: muscles innervated BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation):

Biceps brachii
Brachioradialis
Coracobrachialis

Descending abdominal aorta: seven divisions “Sometimes Intestines Get Really Stretched Causing Leakage”:

Suprarenals [paired]
Inferior mesenteric
Gonadal [paired]
Renals [paired]
Superior mesenteric
Celiac
Lumbar [paired]

Menisci attachments in knee “Each meniscus has something attached to it”:

The medial meniscus has the medial collateral ligament.
The lateral meniscus is attached to the popliteal muscle.

Carpel bones “So Long To Pinky, Here Comes The Thumb”:

• Proximal row, lateral-to-medial, then distal row, medial-to-medial:
Scaphoid
Lunate
Triquetrium
Pisiform
Hamate
Capate
Trapezoid
Trapezium

Cruciate ligaments: insertions PAMS APPLES:

Posterior [passes] Anterior [inserts] Medially.
Anterior [passes] Posteriorly [inserts] Laterally.

Sperm: path through male reproductive system “My boyfriend’s name is STEVE”:

Seminiferous Tubules
Epididymis
Vas deferens
Ejaculatory duct

Femoral artery deep branches “Put My Leg Down Please”:

Profundus femoris (deep femoral artery)
Medial circumflex femoral artery
Lateral circumflex femoral artery
Descending genicular arteries
Perforating arteries

Lower limb peripheral nerve injurys “Drop into a DEeP PIT and shuffle your way out”:

Foot Drop results from Dorsiflexors and Evertors paralysis, due to common Peroneal nerve lesion.

Plantarflexion and Inversion impairment due to Tibial nerve lesion, results in a shuffling gait.

Supination vs. pronation

“SOUPination”: Supination is to turn your arm palm up, as if you are holding a bowl of soup.

“POUR-nation”: Pronation is to turn your arm with the palm down, as if you are pouring out whatever is your bowl.

• Alternatively, Pronation donation: Pronation is palm facing downward, as if making a donation.

Subclavian artery branches “Very Tired Individuals Sip Strong Coffee Served Daily”:

Vertebral artery

Thyrocervical trunk
—Inferior thyroid
—Superficial cervical
—Suprascapular

Costocervical
—Superior intercostal
—Deep cervical

Scalp: nerve supply GLASS:

Greater occipital/ Greater auricular
Lesser occipital
Auriculotemporal
Supratrochlear
Supraorbital

Tibia: muscles of pes anserinus (the muscles attached to tibia’s medial side) “A Girl between Two Sargeants”:

Gracilus is between
Sartorius and
Semitendonosus

Rib costal groove: order of intercostal blood vessels and nerve VAN:

• From superior to inferior:
Vein
Artery
Nerve

Internal pudendal branches “I Pee Pee But Don’t Dump!”:

Inferior rectal
Posterior scrotal (or labial)
Perineal
Bulb
Deep artery
Dorsal artery

Spinal cord: length in vertebral column SCULL:

Spinal Cord Until L2 (LL).

Erector spinae muscles: order

Spinalis is on the spine (most medial).
Iliocostalis is on the ribs (most lateral).
And it’s a Long (Longissimus) way between the spine and the ribs!

Carpum and tarsum “SCIT”:

(Artum) Superior Carpum
(Artum) Inferior Tarsum

Brachial artery: recurrent and collateral branches “I Am Pretty Sexy”

Inferior ulnar collateral artery goes with Anterior ulnar recurrent artery.
Posterior ulnar recurrent artery goes with Superior ulnar collateral artery.

• Alternatively: “I Am Pretty Smart”.

Orbit: bones of medial wall “My Little Eye Sits in the orbit”:

Maxilla (frontal process)
Lacrimal
Ethmoid
Sphenoid (body)

Facial nerve branches “Two Zombies Buggered My Cat”:

• From superior to inferior:
Temporal branch
Zygomatic branch
Buccal branch
Mandibular branch
Cervical branch

• Alternatively: “Two Zulus Bit My Cat”.
• Alternatively: “Two Zebras Bit My Coccyx”.
• Alternatively: “To Zanzibar By Motor Car”.
• Alternatively: “Tall Zulus Bear Many Children”.

Cartilage derivatives of 1st pharyngeal arch (mandibular) “I’M A Super Sexy Guy” (or Girl):

Incus
Malleus
Anterior ligament of malleus
Spine of sphenoid
Sphenomandibular ligament
Genial tubercle of mandible

Facial nerve: branches after Stylomastoid foramen “Ten Zulus Buggered My Cat (Painfully)”:

• From superior to inferior:
Temporal branch
Zygomatic branch
Buccal branch
Mandibular branch
Cervical branch
(Posterior auricular nerve)

• Alternatively: “PAssing Through Zanzibar By Motor Car” (PA for Posterior Auricular).

Sperm pathway through male reproductive tract “STaRT DEEP–VD!”:

• Sperm duct system progression, from smallest to largest:
ST: Seminiferous Tubules
RT: Rete Testes
DE: Ductus Efferentes
EP: Epididymis
VD: Vas Deferens

Superior orbital fissure: structures passing through “Live Free To See Absolutely No Insult”:

Lacrimal nerve
Frontal nerve
Trochlear nerve
Superior branch of oculomotor nerve
Abducent nerve
Nasociliary nerve
Inferior branch of oculomotor nerve

Vertebrae: number of facets a typical thoracic has Typical Thoracic has Ten facets.

External carotid artery branches “So Long For Acting Old Parenting Means Stability”:

Superior thyroid
Lingual
Facial
Ascending pharyngeal
Occiptal
Posterior auricular
Maxillary
Superficial temporal

Horner’s syndrome components “HORNy PAM”

• Horner’s is:
Ptosis
Anhidrosis
Miosis

Superior mediastinum contents “BATS & TENT”:

Brachiocephalic veins
Arch of aorta
Thymus
Superior vena cava
Trachea
Esophagus
Nerves (vagus & phrenic)
Thoracic duct

Scrotum layers “Some Days Eddie Can Irritate People Very Thourougly”:

Skin
Dartos layer
External spermatic fascia
Cremaster muscle
Internal spermatic fascia
Parietal tunica vaginalis
Visceral tunica vaginalis
Tunica albuginea

External carotid artery branches “Sally Ate Lots Of Fresh Produce March Through September”:

Superior thyroid
Ascending laryngeal
Lingual
Occipital (O before F is an extremely common variation)
Facial
Posterior auricular
Maxillary
Transverse facial
Superficial temporal

Cubital fossa contents “Really Need Booze To Be At My Nicest”:

• From lateral to medial:
Radial Nerve
Biceps Tendon
Brachial Artery
Median Nerve

Cricoarytenoids: abductor vs. adductor

When aliens abduct you, they Probe you.

Posterior cricoarytenoids abduct. Lateral therefore is adduct by default.

Extensor expansion location in the hand

The eXtensor eXpansion is on the proXimal phalynX.

Carpal bone having the hook The Hamate has the Hook.
External carotid artery branches “She Lay Flaccid As Olaf’s Penis Slipped In”:

• From caudal to cephalad:
Superior thyroid
Lingual
Facial
Ascending pharyngeal
Occipital
Posterior auricular
Superficial temporal
(Internal) maxillary

Brachial artery is medial to biceps tendon “BAMBI”:

Brachial Artery is Medial to Biceps In elbow.

Ossification ages “Every Potential Anatomist Should Know When”

• When they ossify, in order of increasing year:
Elbow: 16 years
Pelvis, Ankle: 17 years
Shoulder, Knee: 18 years
Wrist: 19 years

Carpal bones (multangular names) “Never Lower Tillie’s Pants. Mother May Come Home.”:

Navicular
Lunate
Triquetrium
Pisiform
greater Multangular (trapezium)
lesser Multangular (trapezoid)
Capitate
Hamate

V3: sensory branches “Buccaneers Are Inferior Linguists”:

Buccal
Auriculotemporal
Inferior alveolar
Lingual

Brachial plexus subunits”Randy Travis Drinks Cold Beer”:

Roots Trunks Divisions Cords Branches

• Alternatively: “Real Texans Drink Coors Beer”.

Tarsal bones
“Tall Californian Navy Medcial Interns Lay Cuties”:

• In order (right foot, superior to inferior, medial to lateral): Talus Calcanous Navicular Medial cuneiform Intermediate cuneiform Lateral cuneifrom Cuboid

Atrioventricular valves”LAB RAT”: Left Atrium: Bicuspid Right Atrium: Tricuspid

Tarsal tunnel: contents
“Tiny Dogs Are Not Hunters”:

• From superior to inferior:
T: Tibialis posterior F: flexor Digitorum longus A: posterior tibial Artery N: tibial Nerve H: flexor Hallucis longus

Vagal nerve: path into thorax

Vagus nerve, unlike phrenic, continues through diaphragm with esophagus–it is “Not Left Behind”:

• The left vagus is anterior, right is posterior [behind].

Inguinal canal: walls”MALT: 2M, 2A, 2L, 2T”:

• Starting from superior, moving around in order to posterior:

Superior wall (roof): 2 Muscles:• internal oblique Muscle, • transverse abdominus Muscle

Anterior wall: 2 Aponeuroses: • Aponeurosis of external oblique,• Aponeurosis of internal oblique

Lower wall (floor): 2 Ligaments: • inguinal Ligament,• lacunar Ligament

Posterior wall: 2Ts: • Transversalis fascia • conjoint Tendon

Bronchopulmonary segments of right lung
“A PALM Seed Makes Another Little Palm”:

• In order from superior to inferior: Apical Posterior Anterior Lateral Medial Superior Medial basal Anterior basal Lateral basal Posterior basal

Tarsal bones
“Traverse City (is) Noted (for) MIchigan’s Lovely Cherries”:

Talus, Calcaneus (new row), Navicular (new row), Medial, Intermediate, cuneiforms, Lateral cuneiform, Cuboid

Aorta vs. vena cava: right vs. left

Aorta and right each have 5 letters, so aorta is on the right. Vena and cava and left each have 4 letters, so vena cava is on the left.

Hip: lateral rotators”Play Golf Or Go On Quaaludes”:

• From top to bottom: Piriformis Gemellus superior Obturator internus Gemellus inferior Obturator externus Quadratus femoris

• Alternatively: “P-GO-GO-Q”.

Facial bones”Virgil Can Not Make My Pet Zebra Laugh!”:

Vomer Conchae Nasal Maxilla Mandible Palatine Zygomatic Lacrimal

Scalp layers
SCALP:

• From superficial to deep: Skin Connective tissue Aponeurosis Loose areolar tissue Pericranium

Thoracoacromial artery branches”CAlifornia Police Department”:

Clavicular Acromial Pectoral Deltoid

Ankle: anterior compartment of leg contents
“The Hamptons Are Never Dull Parties”:

• From medial malleolus: Tibialis anterior tendon (Extensor) Hallacus longus Artery (anterior tibial) Nerve (deep peroneal) (Extensor) Digitorum Peroneus tertius

Erector spinae muscles
“I Love Sex”:

• From lateral to medial: Iliocostalis Longissimus Spinalis

• Alternatively:
“I Long for Spinach”

• “Sex” helps you think of “Erector”, but “Long” and “Spinach” help you remember the muscles’ names.

Leg: anterior muscles of leg”The Hospitals Are Not Dirty Places”:

T: Tibialis anterior H: extensor Hallucis longus A: anterior tibial Artery N: deep fibular Nerve D: extensor Digitorum longus P: Peronius tertius [aka fibularis tertius]

Nasal cavity components
“Never Call Me Needle Nose!”:

Nares [external] Conchae Meatuses Nares [internal] Nasopharynx

• Note mnemonic sentence is nasally-related.

Rotator cuff muscles”The SITS muscles”:

• Clockwise from top: Supraspinatus Infraspinatus Teres minor Subscapularis

• A pro baseball pitcher has injured his rotator cuff muscles. As a result, he SITS out for the rest of the game, and then gets sent to the minor leagues.

Radial nerve: muscles innervated
“Try A Big Chocolate Chip Sundae, Double Dip Cherries And Peanuts Preferably Included”:

• In order of their innervation, proximal to distal:
Triceps Anconeus Brachioradialis ext. Carpi radialis longus ext. Carpi radialis brevis Supinator ext. Digitorum ext.Digiti minimi ext. Carpi ulnaris Abductor poll. longus ext. Poll. brevis ext. P poll. longus ext. Indicis

• For the neighboring words that start with the same letter (eg: chocolate and chip), notice that the longer word in the mnemonic, corresponds to the longer of the two muscle names (ex: ext. carpi radialis longus and ext. carpi radialis brevis)

Deep tendon reflexes: root supply

• God designed body reflexes according to a nursery rhyme: One, two– buckle my shoe. Three, four– kick the door. Five, six– pick up sticks. Seven, eight– shut the gate.

S1,2 = ankle jerk L3,4 = knee jerk C5,6 = biceps and brachioradialis C7,8 = triceps

Penis autonomic innervation actions

“Parasympathetic Puts it up. Sympathetic Spurts it out”.

Alternatively: “Point and Shoot”: Parasympathetic Points it, Sympathetic Shoots out the semen.

• Erection and Ejaculation (Emission).

Internal iliac artery: anterior branches

What Bill admitted to Hilary: “I Milked Our Insatiable Intern’s Udders Under the Desk”:

Inferior gluteal Middle rectal Obturator Inferior vesical artery Internal pudendal artery Umbilical U/D=Uterine artery (female)/ Deferential artery (male)

Muscles: potentially absent ones

• Muscles which may be absent but may be important: 5 P’s: Palmaris longus [upper limb] Plantaris [lower limb] Peroneus tertius [lower limb] Pyramidalis [anterior abdominal wall] Psoas minor [posterior abdominal wall]

Carpal bones”Stop Letting Those People Touch The Cadaver’s Hand”:

• Proximal row, lateral-to-medial: Scaphoid Lunate Triquetrum Pisiform

• Distal row, lateral-to-medial: Trapezium Trapezoid Capitate Hamate

Carpal bones”She Looks Too Pretty; Try To Catch Her”:

• Proximal row then distal row, both lateral-to-medial: Scaphoid Lunate Triquetrium Pisiform Trapezium Trapezoid Capate Hamate

• Alternatively: “She Likes To Play; Try To Catch Her”.

Flexor digitorum muscles: how they insert onto fingers

• A little rhyme: Superficialis Splits in two, To Permit Profundus Passing through.

Scrotum layers
“Some Damn Englishman Called It The Testis”:

• From superficial to deep: Skin Dartos External spermatic fascia Cremaster Internal spermatic fascia Tunica vaginalis Testis

Femoral triangle: contents NAVY:

• In order from lateral to medial: Nerve Artery Vein Y of the groin • Alternatively: Y = Y-fronts [male underwear].

Vagus nerve: path into thorax”I Left my Aunt in Vegas”:

Left Vagus nerve goes Anterior descending into the thorax.

Supine vs. prone body position

Know SUPination is your hand while carrying a bowl of SOUP. Your face follows where your palm is facing [i.e. up].

Put a handpuppet on your hand while hand is in supination and the puppet will be the supine position.

Axillary artery branches
“Suzy Thompkins Loves Sex, Alcohol, and Pot”:

• From proximal to distal: Superior thoracic Thoracacromial Lateral thoracic Subscapular Anterior circumflex humeral Posterior circumflex humeral

Horner’s syndrome components SPAM:

Sunken eyeballs/ Symphathetic plexus (cervical) affected Ptosis Anhydrosis Miosis

Voicebox: names of parts in sagittal cross-section

“There’s 3 V’s in your Voicebox”: Vestibular fold Ventricle Vocal fold

• Note: Vestibular and Vocal cord also known as false and true cords respectively.

Serratus anterior: innervation

SALT: Serratus Anterior = Long Thoracic.

Hip: lateral rotators “Piece Goods Often Go On Quilts”:

Piriformis Gemellus superior Obturator internus Gemellus inferior Obturator externus Quadratus femoris

Thigh: innervation by compartment” MAP OF Sciatic”:

Medial compartment: Obturator Anterior compartment: Femoral Posterior compartment: Sciatic

• So all the thigh muscles in that compartment get innervated by that nerve.

Internal jugular vein: tributaries”Medical Schools Let Confident People In”:

• From inferior to superior: Middle thyroid Superior thyroid Lingual Common facial Pharyngeal Inferior petrosal sinus

Genu valgum vs. genu vargum

Genu valGUM (knock-knee): knees are GUMmed together.

• Varum (bowleg) is the other by default, or Far rhymes with Var, so knees are far apart.

Erector spinae muscles”I Like Standing”:

• From lateral to medial Illiocostalis Longissimus Spinalis

Cubital fossa contents “N-MAN”:

• From lateral to medial: Nerve Muscle Artery Nerve

• Specifics are radial Nerve, biceps Muscle tendon, brachial Artery, median Nerve.

External carotid artery branches”Suzy Always Lays Flat On Pillows Making Sex Terrific”:

Superior thyroid Ascending pharyngeal Lingual Facial Occipital Posterior auricular Maxillary Superificial Temporal

Median nerve: recognizing it in an opened axilla

The Median nerve is the Middle of a giant capital “M” formed by the musculocutaneous and ulnar nerves.

Trigeminal nerve: where branches exit skull

“Standing Room Only”: Superior orbital fissure is V1 foramen Rotundum is V2 foramen Ovale is V3

Dermatome C7 location

C7 gives the finger to heaven (as in middle finger).

External carotid artery branches”Some Angry Lady Figured Out PMS”:

Superior thyroid Ascending pharyngeal Lingual Facial Occipital Posterior auricular Maxillary Superificial temporal

Brachioradialis: function, innervation, one relation, one attachment BrachioRadialis:

Function: Its the Beer Raising muscle, flexes elbow, strongest when wrist is oriented like holding a beer.

Innervation: Breaks Rule: it’s a flexor muscle, But Radial. (Radial nerve usually is for extensors: Recall BEST rule: B was for brachioradialis).

Important relation: Behind it is the Radial nerve in the cubital fossa.

Attachment: Attaches to Bottom of Radius.

Pleura surface markings”All the even ribs, in order: 2,4,6,8,10,12 show its route”:

Rib2: sharp angle inferiorly

Rib4: the left pleura does a lateral shift to accommodate heart

Rib6: both diverge laterally

Rib8: midclavicular line

Rib10: midaxillary line

Rib12: the back

Aortic arch: major branch order “Know your ABC’S”:

Aortic arch gives rise to: Brachiocephalic trunk left Common Carotid left Subclavian

• Beware though trick question of ‘What is first branch of aorta?’ Technically, it’s the coronary arteries.

V3 innervated muscles (branchial arch 1 derivatives)
“M.D. My TV”:

Mastication [masseter, temporalis, pterygoids] Digastric [anterior belly] Mylohyoid tensor Tympani tensor Veli palatini

Foramen ovale contents
MALE:

Mandibular nerve, Accessory meningeal artery, Lesser petrosal nerve, Emissary veins



55 Responses to “Anatomy Mnemonics”

  1. 1 PT student

    Thanks these really help; Especially the upper limb mnemonics, which is what we are studying at the moment.

  2. hey, can u help me with carpal tunnel mnemonics…i meant the content of the canal, not just the bones…i really cant find one…thanks

    cheers,
    afiq

  3. Brilliant. You are the best!!

  4. 4 maddy

    smashin mnemonics!!!!really made anat fun.. u sure r d bst

  5. 5 COPIED FROM MEDICALMNEMONICS SITE

    MOST OF THEM ARE USELESS REPETITIONS,MISSING THE MAIN STUFF.

  6. excellent

  7. 7 pentulis

    thanks for this very useful mnemonics

  8. YA GUD STUFF….BUT WANT MORE ON LOWER LIMD…MANNN ITS TOUGH!

  9. 9 sanjaya pandey

    Thanks these really help; Especially the upper limb mnemonics, which is what we are studying at the moment.

    thanks for this very useful mnemonics !!!

  10. 10 zona radiate

    i want some mnemonic bout the content of foramen at head and neck..tq

  11. 11 Andy

    How about some cranial nerve menomics? I know a few, and maybe they’re so common you didn’t include them. My favorite is “Oh, Oh, Oh, to touch and feel various girl’s vaginas. Ah heaven!” It doesn’t help with the first three, but you get the idea…

  12. thanks! humongous help!

  13. 13 abdul

    thanx for teaching valuable mnemonics

  14. 14 jonathan train

    The Krebs Cycle

    1. Note two things about the Kreb cycle – it contains 2 circles with the inner circle of the names of the compounds and the outer circle with molecular formulas of compounds. Secondly, all the words in the circle end in “ate, nate, rate, or citate.
    2. Highlight names in inner circle and start with citrate going clockwise.
    3. Use the following phrase (this is X rated – but its the best way I can memorize). CIndy IS Kinky. She SUCks FUcks MALes Often.
    CI=citrate, IS= ISocitrate, Kinky = @ ketaglutamate (think of Cindy’s vagina as being sticky like glue- hence the glutamate), She=Succinyl Coa, SUCks=SUCrate (remember, she sucks twice cuz she’s kinky), FU…ks= FUmate (pronounce it as“fuc..kamate” so it rhymes w/ Fu…cks, and then take out the ck because the letters ck together do not exist in the krebs cycle – besides, do ya really think they would make a chemical called “fu…ckamate”) MALes= MALate, and O= Oxyoliacitrate (O is oxygen from elements)
    3. look for ways to memorize outer circle.
    4.Outer Circle: the first 2 are actyl – acytyl and acityl sh
    5.the first 2 quadrants have a repitition of CO2 nad nadh preceded by H2O
    6.remember adp ->atp cuz d is before p in alphabet.
    7.Same for gdp->gtp
    8.fad fadh as in the krebs cycle is the new “fad”
    9.nad nadh again with water

  15. 15 vanessa

    do you have mnemonics for the regions and quadrants of the abdomen? thanks

    • 16 Jonathan

      I’m glad that you like my mnemonics. If only I can find a place that will accept them. Because mine are mnemonics are very dirty, a lot of sites either do not accept mine or they change it up so much that it doesn’t make sense. As far as the regions and quadrants of the abdomen:
      Note be careful when labeling right and left quadrants..Everything is perceived from the patient”s view since that’s who ya gonna be working on if you go into the health field.
      for quadrants, all you have to do is divide abdomen into fourths (quad = four) with y axis down the belly button. Then its either upper or lower left or right sides.
      Regions:
      the inguinal is at the bottom – picture engines hanging by nails on your lower right and left regions. Note: pronounce inguinal like engine nail.
      as for hypochondrial and lumber think of a person who is a hypochondriac ex. steve urkel from family matters. who is standing on the side on top of a tree limb looking at an engine from down below.. the limb is for lumbar . Now think about the middle of the tree. Gas is flowing over the top above your belly button where your imbilical cord once was attached to. I can’t think of a mnemonic for the lower middle, so then just memorize. I hope that helps

  16. 18 dawit

    its good but i need more

  17. Visit my blog for mnemonics and memory tips..
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  18. 20 drkisser

    Phenomenal. Thank you mate.

  19. 21 Emma

    This was very enjoyable, and helpful!

  20. nid some help wid d spinal cord tracts……..

  21. 23 Oghogho Idahosa Lawson

    Good one

  22. 24 Girma Moges

    good but add more

  23. really helpful mnemonics

  24. 26 Omar Amin

    Really helpful…thnx to all who uploaded these

  25. 27 cindy

    THANK you so much.These are brilliant!

  26. 28 Camille

    There was only one mistake I found.
    “Musculocutaneous nerve: muscles innervated BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation):

    Biceps brachii
    Brachioradialis
    Coracobrachialis”

    Brachioradialis is innervated by the radial nerve. It was meant to be brachialis.

    This really helped! Now that I found that mistake, I better double check all my memory cues before I take my exam tomorrow. D:

  27. 29 C.Camille

    Cat arteries please, it’s so hard to remember them

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